When the fraction is less than 0. Evapotranspiration can affect the concentration of most pollutants of concern in stormwater management. Most pollutants e. It is important to consider ET as a water-budget outflow, where necessary, to avoid miscalculations in the pollutant load budget when using concentration measurements. Evapotranspiration may be a significant water budget component for wetlands, wet ponds, and other stormwater treatment practices that are designed to maintain a permanent pool or have large areas of moisture-rich soils, and therefore should be estimated or considered.
ET processes typically have a minimal affect on the performance of stormwater best management practices that are designed to treat water within a short period of time less than 4 days and therefore the estimation of ET is typically unnecessary for the assessment of performance of these practices. Evapotranspiration can be estimated using indirect e. It is recommended that indirect methods of estimation be used in most cases, but direct methods should be used when more accurate measurements of evaporation or ET are necessary.
Continue to Rainfall. Eddy correlation techniques have been developed to measure ET directly Kizer and Elliot In contrast to annual ET values, these measurements can be used to estimate ET during small time intervals hourly or less. High speed sensors are placed over the plant canopy or water body.
These sensors typically measure simultaneously vertical velocities and absolute humidity values. The product of these two measurements corresponds to the rate of water vapor movement as the result of mostly ET processes.
Important considerations in using this approach are the frequency response of the sensor, instrument height, and separation distance between sensors. The sensors must be placed carefully to capture the overall movement of water vapor that are transported by turbulent eddies of different sizes. Although eddy-correlation techniques are theoretically appealing, care is needed in setting up eddy-correlation instruments and analyzing their data.
They are only recommended for use by professionals with experience in measuring turbulent flows. Share this page. If it is a nice hot summer day and the water is splashing small droplets onto a hot rock, chances are that it will immediately evaporate rather than run back into the stream.
Some, naturally, may actually splash completely out of the system. There might also be a small stick, leaf, plant stem, etc. As the years progressed I realized the best thing to do, if you can't fix them with glue, is just let them be. Now I have a small stack of LPs I had taped seam splits on, etc. Nathan Aaron , Aug 27, Location: Brisvegas, Australia. Easy-E , Aug 27, ParloFax and Gibson67 like this. I had no clue. I actually have some of that. I might have to give it a try! ParloFax likes this.
Location: Miami. I have used liquid black shoe polish to touch ip black edges. Sharpies look purple in certain light. Water base black markers are better. Also have used Glass Wax to restore laminated film covers, and glossy stock covers can really look great after a spray and buff with Pledge Furniture Polish.
Ive even laminated really cool jackets myself. I wouldn't do this on a rare item or one I intend to sell, but for personal use its nice, and fun to do. Vinylfindco , Aug 27, I resurrected my dad's classical records, stored in a dump garage for twenty years, with a natural sponge and mild dish soap. Vinyl is always a surprise, not always a nice one, but it worths the job.
Posted 16 May What a shame. The jackets are probably unsalvagable. I had a problem with mold through storing records unplayed for years in the damp cellar at my old house. I found that it comes off easily by washing with cold water and wiping dry with soft paper towels.
I used kitchen towels. If really bad a second wash was sometimes needed. You will be able to leave a comment after signing in. Share this post Link to post Share on other sites. Edited 15 May by Teasing the Korean. Just put 'em in the dishwasher. You have my sympathy. Ten bucks says you have a leak, fairly high up. Water dropped to the leak's level, then stopped. Replies: 0 Last Post: , AM. Replies: 0 Last Post: , PM.
Just installed a solar cover, when is the best time to run the filter? Replies: 3 Last Post: , PM.May 01, · HOWEVER, when there is a lower pond and a water feature such as a stream or waterfall above it, there is more to it than just looking at the lower pond and measuring the loss. For example: An upper pond 6´ x 8´, a stream bed 15´ long and about 1´ wide of actual running water, and a lower pond that is only 10´ x 10´.